The density and configuration of plants in the field, including in cotton, is central to achieving crop yield, management, and economic goals. This is truer now than ever, because modern seed costs have become so high. Cotton is a highly adaptable plant that can adjust to a wide variety of conditions, but the occurrence of system- and weather-dependent stand loss, crop production tradeoffs with population, and some misconceptions have made it challenging to make the best plant population decisions. This presentation will help consultants, growers, and other practitioners to better understand a broad scope of issues surrounding plant population in cotton. Covered topics include: discussion of current plant population recommendations, work done by my colleagues and I to better characterize the cotton yield response to plant population, gaps in scientific knowledge, causes of stand loss, and crop production tradeoffs with high and low populations.