Of the three essential macronutrients needed for cotton growth, nitrogen is often required in the largest amount and is the most frequently applied fertilizer in cotton production systems. Nitrogen can be difficult to manage because it is susceptible to several soil-loss pathways, including leaching, volatilization, and denitrification. Additionally, excess nitrogen can create problems such as delayed maturity and increased susceptibility to insect damage and diseases. This presentation covers management practices to reduce soil nitrogen loss and to improve nitrogen use efficiency in cotton. Appropriate rates, sources, timing, and placement of nitrogen fertilizers for southeastern cotton production systems will be discussed.